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Bird Urinalysis

Examination of urine from the avian patient presents some obvious problems (collection of a large enough volume to analyze, separation of it from the fecal portion of the droppings, etc), but urine samples are of significant diagnostic value. The urine's physical (color, clarity, specific gravity, pH, etc) and bio-chemical (presence of protein, glucose, blood, etc) properties are analyzed.

The urine sample is centrifuged and the sediment is examined for its cellular debris (white and red blood cells, lining cells of the urinary system, etc), crystals, and microorganisms (bacteria, parasites, etc).